About Us

A long time ago, in a laboratory far, far away…

…Colin conceived the idea of S³ in the University of Oregon Balance Laboratory while completing his first master’s degree.  Then came 2 decades of testing and research…


Both field studies on S3 Balance were completed in established Independent Living, Assisted Living and Memory Care communities in Oregon.  

Field study #1 (2018)


Average reduction in fall risk


Field study #2 (2022)


Average reduction in number of falls


Onsite pilot testing, c.h. Physical Therapy, Beaverton, Hillsboro, Tigard, Milwaukie locations (2003-present)

Onsite trial, Friendship Health Center (2018)

Onsite trial, Avamere Crestview of Portland (2018)

Onsite trial, Marquis at Mill Park (2018)

Onsite trial, Avamere Court at Keizer (2018)

Onsite trial, Washington Gardens, A Memory Care Facility (2018)

Onsite trial, Avamere at Sunnyside (2017)

Onsite trial, Windsong Memory Care (2017-2018)

Onsite trial, Holiday Retirement at Rock Creek (2018)

Onsite pilot testing, c.h. Physical Therapy Pearl location (2008-2010)

Onsite pilot testing (1st generation prototype), Lancaster Village (2003)

Barnett A et al. Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: A randomized controlled trial. Age and Ageing 2003 July;32(4):407-14.

Bizzini M et al. Biomechanical issues in patellofemoral joint rehabilitation. Orthopaedics 2008 Sep;37(9):866-71.

Bostick et al. Systematic review of studies of staffing and quality in nursing homes. Journal American Medical Directors Association 2006;7(6):366-76.

Campbell AJ et al. Rethinking individual and community fall prevention strategies: a meta-regression comparing single and multifactorial interventions. Age Ageing2007;36(6):656-62.

Clemson L et al. Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activities to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): randomised parallel trial. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed). 2012;345:e4547.

Cohen ZA et al. Patellofemoral stresses during open and closed kinetic chain exercises. An analysis using computer simulation. American Journal Sports Medicine 2001 Jul-Aug;29(4):480-7.

Day L et al. Randomized factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes. British Medical Journal 2002 Jul 20;325(7356):128-33.

Escamilla RF et al. Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises. Medicine Science Sport Exercise 1998 April;30(4):556-69.

Gillespie LD et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9.

Granacher U et al. Age-related effects on postural control under multi-task conditions. Gerontology 2011;57(3):247-55.

Howe et al. Exercise for improving balance in older people. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2011;11:CD004963.

Kemmler et al. Exercise effects on bone mineral density, falls, coronary risk factors and health care costs in older women: the randomized controlled senior fitness and prevention (SEFIP) study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010 Jan 25;170(2):179-85.

Kwon YJ et al. The effect of open and closed kinetic chain exercises on dynamic balance ability of normal healthy adults. Journal Physical Therapy Science 2013 Jun;25(6):671-4.

La Grow et al. Reducing hazard-related falls in people 75 years and older with a significant visual impairment: How did a successful program work? Injury Prevention 2006 Oct;12(5):296-301.

Lord SR et al. The effect of group exercise on physical functioning and falls in frail older people living in retirement villages: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2003 Dec;51(12):1685-92.

Melzer I et al. Improving balance control and self-reported lower extremity function in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized control trial. Clinical Rehabilitation2013;27(3):195-206.

Merrill RL et al. Balance confidence and fear of falling avoidance behavior are most predictive of falling in older adults: prospective analysis. Physical Therapy2016;96(4):433-42.

Pighills AC et al. Environmental assessment and modification to prevent falls in older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2011;59(1):26-33.

Rand D et al. Interventions for addressing low balance confidence in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2011;40(3):297-306.

Robertson MC et al. Preventing injuries in older people by preventing falls: a meta-analysis of individual-level data. Journal American Geriatric Society 2002;50(5):905-11.

Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age Ageing 2006;35(2):ii37-41.

Santini ZI et al. Social network typologies and mortality risk among older people in China, India, and Latin America: A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study. Social Science Medicine 2015 Dec;147:134-43.

Sherrington C et al. Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal American Geriatric Society 2008;56(12):2234-43.

Shumway-Cook A & Woollacott MH. Motor Control: translating research into clinical practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2007.

Shumway-Cook A et al. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the timed up and go test. Physical Therapy 2000;80(9):896-903.

Skelton D et al. Tailored group exercise (Falls Management Exercise – FAME) reduces falls in community-dwelling older frequent fallers (an RCT). Age and Ageing 2005 Nov;34(6):636-9.

Smulders E et al. Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 2010;91(11):1705-11.

Stevens JA et al. The costs of fatal and nonfatal falls among older adults. Injury Prevention 2006a;12:290-5.

Touleotte C et al. Effects of training and detraining on the static and dynamic balance in elderly fallers and non-fallers: a pilot study. Disability Rehabilition 2006;28(2):125-33.

van Nispen RM et al. Role of vision loss, functional limitations and supporting network in depression in a general population. Acta Ophthalmology 2015 Nov 6 (doi: 10.1111/aos. 12896. [Epub ahead of print].

Weerdesteyn V et al. A five-week exercise program can reduce falls and improve obstacle avoidance in the elderly. Gerontology 2006;52(3):131-41.

World Health Organization. WHO global report on falls prevention in older age. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.

Colin Hoobler, PT, DPT, MS

CEO, Inventor, Founder

Colin invented S³ in 1997 and has a Doctor of Physical Therapy from Boston University, master’s in Physical Therapy from Drexel University, master’s in Exercise and Movement Science from University of Oregon and bachelor’s in Kinesiology from Oregon State University.  Colin is passionate about helping vulnerable populations, such as older adults, children and those suffering from chronic pain.  To this end, he created and hosts the podcast Action 30, a public service for those who need exercise/lifestyle guidance but cannot afford it.  He has also founded and developed many outpatient PT/training clinics and is a health writer for the Oregonian.  He created the “The Fitness Show”, a PBS TV series showing how exercise can help overcome injury and disease.  Colin was also a health expert for local NBC News, hosted his radio show “Smart Fitness” and has written 2 books.

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